Our research currently provides results in the form of new knowledge, which is generally published in specialized scientific journals. In addition, the multi-disciplinary character of our team of researchers and collaborators has been used to transfer some of these results into useful applications for medical. In 2010, some members of the group founded Apeiron Medical, a start-up company which to date has commercialized the COOLINSIDE patented technology, a radiofrequency- based sealing dissector for surgical resection. Our team is actively engaged in translational medicine with the aim of moving new ideas from bench to bedside.

Laparoscopic pancreatic transection whith Coolinside.


Effect of applied voltage, duration and repetition frequency of RF pulses for pain relief on temperature spikes and electrical field: a computer modelling study. E Ewertowska, B Mercadal, V Muñoz, A Ivorra, M Trujillo, E Berjano. International Journal of Hyperthermia, 2018, Feb 34; 34(1):112-121.
[Epub ahead of print]


Relation between time to denaturation measured by optical coherence reflectometry and thermal lesion depth during radiofrequency cardiac ablation: feasibility numerical study. A Gonzalez-Suarez, D Herranz, E Berjano, JL Rubio-Guivernau, E Margallo-Balbás. Lasers in Surgery and Medicine, 2017, Nov 23.
[Epub ahead of print]

Thermal latency adds to lesion depth after application of high-power short-duration radiofrequency energy. R Irastorza, A d’Ávila, E Berjano. Journal of Cardiovascular Electrophysiology, 2017, Oct 8.
[Epub ahead of print]

Modeling Liver Electrical Conductivity during Hypertonic Injection. Q Castellví, P Sánchez-Velázquez, X Mol, E Berjano, A Andaluz, F Burdío, B Bijnens, A Ivorra. International Journal of Numerical Methods in Biomedical Engineering, 2017, May 30.
[Epub ahead of print]

Numerical analysis of thermal impact of intramyocardial capillary blood flow during radiofrequency cardiac ablation. JJ Pérez, A González-Suárez, E Berjano. International Journal of Hyperthermia, 2017, Jun 18.
[Epub ahead of print]

Computational modeling of internally cooled wet (ICW) electrodes for radiofrequency ablation: Impact of rehydration, thermal convection and electrical conductivity. M Trujillo, J Bon, E Berjano. International Journal of Hyperthermia. 2017, 33(6):624-634.
[Epub ahead of print]

An Analytical Solution for Radiofrequency Ablation with a Cooled Cylindrical Electrode. R Romero-Méndez, E Berjano. Mathematical Problems in Engineering, 2017, ID 9021616.
[Epub ahead of print]

Long-term effectiveness of irreversible electroporation in a murine model of colorectal liver metastasis. P Sánchez-Velázquez, Q Castellví, A Villanueva, M Iglesias, R Quesada, C Pañella, M Cáceres, D Dorcaratto, A Andaluz, X Moll, J M Burdío, L Grande, A Ivorra, F Burdío. Scientific Reports, 2017, 7:44821.
[Epub ahead of print]

The impact of radiofrequency-assisted transection on local hepatic recurrence after resection of colorectal liver metastases. R Quesada, A Moreno, I Poves, E Berjano, L Grande, F Burdío. Surgical Oncology, 26:229-35, 2017.
[Epub ahead of print]

Impact of monopolar radiofrequency coagulation on intraoperative blood loss during liver resection: A prospective randomized controlled trial. Quesada R, Poves, I, Berjano E, Vilaplana C, Andaluz A, Moll X, Dorcaratto D, Grande L, Burdio F. Int J Hyperthermia. 2017, 33(2): 135-141. doi: 10.1080/02656736.2016.1231938/
[Epub ahead of print]

Analytical transient-time solution for temperature in non perfused tissue during radiofrequency ablation. López Molina JA, Rivera MJ, Berjano E. Applied Mathematical Modelling. 2017, 42: 618-635, doi: 10.1016/j.apm.2016.10.044 0307-904X/
[Epub ahead of print]

An Analytical Solution for Radiofrequency Ablation with a Cooled Cylindrical Electrode. Romero-Méndez, R, Berjano E. Mathematical Problems in Engineering. 2017, 1-12, 2017, doi: 10.1155/2017/9021616
[Epub ahead of print]

How coagulation zone size is underestimated in computer modeling of RF ablation by ignoring the cooling phase just after RF power is switched off. Irastorza RM, Trujillo M, Berjano E, International Journal for Numerical Methods in Biomedical Engineering. 2017, doi: 10.1002/cnm.2869.
[Epub ahead of print]



Laparoscopic partial splenectomy for giant cyst using a radiofrequency-assisted device: a case report. Quesada R, Poves I, Iglesias M, Berjano E, Grande L, Burdío F. Surg Case Rep. 2016;2(1):82. doi: 10.1186/s40792-016-0206-x.
[Epub ahead of print]

Computer modeling an impedance-controlled pulsing protocol for RF tumor ablation with a cooled electrode. Trujillo M, Bon J, Rivera MJ, Burdío F, Berjano E, International Journal of Hyperthermia, 32(8):931-9, 2016.
[Epub ahead of print]

Can fat after myocardial infarction alter the performance of RF catheter ablation of scar-related ventricular tachycardia?: Results from a computer modeling study. Pérez JJ, D’Avila A, Aryana A, Trujillo M, Berjano E, Journal of Cardiovascular Electrophysiology, 27(8):947-52, 2016.
[Epub ahead of print]

Electrical-thermal analytical modeling of monopolar RF thermal ablation of biological tissues: determining the circumstances under which tissue temperature reaches a steady state. Lopez Molina JA, Rivera MJ, Berjano E. Math Biosci Eng. 2016 Apr 1;13(2):281-301.
[Epub ahead of print]

Comparative Analysis of Different Methods of Modeling the Thermal Effect of Circulating Blood Flow During RF Cardiac Ablation. Gonzalez-Suarez A, Berjano E. IEEE Trans Biomed Eng. 2015 Jul 31.
[Epub ahead of print]

Long-term evolution of acinar-to-ductal metaplasia and β-cell mass after radiofrequency-assisted transection of the pancreas in a controlled large animal model. Quesada R, Andaluz A, Cáceres M, Moll X, Iglesias M, Dorcaratto D, Poves I, Berjano E, Grande L, Burdío F. Pancreatology. 2015 Nov 18. pii: S1424-3903(15)00684-5. doi: 10.1016/j.pan.2015.10.014.
[Epub ahead of print]

Radiofrequency-induced heating versus mechanical stapler for pancreatic stump closure: in vivo comparative study. Burdío F, Dorcaratto D, Hernandez L, Andaluz A, Moll X, Quesada R, Poves I, Grande L, Cáceres M, Berjano E. Int J Hyperthermia. 2016 Jan 29:1-9.
[Epub ahead of print]

Computational Modeling of Open-Irrigated Electrodes for Radiofrequency Cardiac Ablation Including Blood Motion-Saline Flow Interaction. González-Suárez A, Berjano E, Guerra JM, Gerardo-Giorda L. PLoS One. 2016 Mar 3;11(3):e0150356. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0150356.
[Epub ahead of print]

Computer modelling of RF ablation in cortical osteoid osteoma: Assessment of the insulating effect of the reactive zone. Irastorza RM, Trujillo M, Martel Villagrán J, Berjano E. Int J Hyperthermia. 2016 Feb 10:1-10.
[Epub ahead of print]

Irreversible electroporation of the liver: is there a safe limit to the ablation volume? Sánchez-Velázquez P, Castellví Q, Villanueva A, Quesada R, Pañella C, Cáceres M, Dorcaratto D, Andaluz A, Moll X, Trujillo M, Burdío JM, Berjano E, Grande L, Ivorra A, Burdío F, Sci Rep. 2016 Apr 1;6:23781

This publication has been awarded the price for "Excellence in surgical research Lino Torre"

[Epub ahead of print]



Thermal and elastic response of subcutaneous tissue with different fibrous septa architectures to RF heating: numerical study. González-Suárez A, Gutierrez-Herrera E, Berjano E, Jimenez Lozano JN, Franco W. Lasers Surg Med. 2015 Feb;47(2):183-95.

Electrical and Thermal Effects of Esophageal Temperature Probes on Radiofrequency Catheter Ablation of Atrial Fibrillation: Results from a Computational Modeling Study. Pérez JJ, D'Avila A, Aryana A, Berjano E. J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol. 2015 Feb 4. doi: 10.1111/jce.12630.


Fourier, hyperbolic and relativistic heat transfer equations: a comparative analytical study. Molina JA, Rivera MJ, Berjano E. Proc. R. Soc. A, 479(2172 20140547), 2014.

Computer modeling and ex vivo experiments with a (saline-linked) irrigated electrode for RF-assisted heating. Arenas J, Perez JJ, Trujillo M, Berjano E. Biomed Eng Online. 2014 Dec 12;13(1):164.

Comparison of Enthalpy Method and Water Fraction Method to Mathematically Model Water Vaporization During RF Ablation. Fatieieva Y, Almendárez P, Romero-Méndez R, Berjano E, Trujillo M. Journal of Advances in Biomedical Engineering and Technology. 2014, 1(1):8-14.

Radiofrequency cardiac ablation with catheters placed on opposing sides of the ventricular wall: Computer modelling comparing bipolar and unipolar modes. González-Suárez A, Trujillo M, Koruth J, d'Avila A, Berjano E. Int J Hyperthermia. 2014 Sep;30(6):372-84.

Could the heat sink effect of blood flow inside large vessels protect the vessel wall from thermal damage during RF-assisted surgical resection? González-Suárez A, Trujillo M, Burdío F, Andaluz A, Berjano E. Med Phys. 2014 Aug;41(8):083301.

Computer modeling of electrical and thermal performance during bipolar pulsed radiofrequency for pain relief. Pérez JJ, Pérez-Cajaraville JJ, Muñoz V, Berjano E. Med Phys. 2014 Jul;41(7):071708.

Radiofrequency pancreatic ablation and section of the main pancreatic duct does not lead to necrotizing pancreatitis. Quesada R, Burdío F, Iglesias M, Dorcaratto D, Cáceres M, Andaluz A, Poves I, Castiella T, Sánchez P, Berjano E, Grande L. Pancreas. 2014 Aug;43(6):931-7.



Radiofrequency is a secure and effective method for pancreatic transection in laparoscopic distal pancreatectomy: results of a randomized, controlled trial in an experimental model. Dorcaratto D, Burdío F, Fondevila D, Andaluz A, Quesada R, Poves I, Caceres M, Mayol X, Berjano E, Grande L. Surg Endosc. 2013 Oct;27(10):3710-3719

Can electroporation previous to radiofrequency hepatic ablation enlarge thermal lesion size? A feasibility study based on theoretical modelling and in vivo experiments. Trujillo M, Castellví Q, Burdío F, Sánchez Velazquez P, Ivorra A, Andaluz A, Berjano E. Int J Hyperthermia. 2013 May;29(3):211-218.

Lumped element electrical model based on three resistors for electrical impedance in radiofrequency cardiac ablation: estimations from analytical calculations and clinical data. Enrique Berjano, Andre d'Avila. The Open Biomedical Engineering Journal, 2013; 7: Pp 62-70

Review of the mathematical functions used to model the temperature dependence of electrical and thermal conductivities of biological tissue. M. Trujillo and E. Berjano, Int J Hyperthermia, 29(6):590-7, 2013.

CT mapping of saline distribution after infusion of saline into the liver in an ex vivo animal model. How much tissue is actually infused in an image-guided procedure? Burdío F, Berjano E, Millan O, Grande L, Poves I, Silva C, de la Fuente MD, Mojal S. Phys Med. 2012 Apr 2.

Numerical resolution of the hyperbolic heat equation using smoothed mathematical functions instead of heaviside and dirac delta distributions, M.J. Rivera, M. Trujillo, V. Romero-García, J.A. López Molina, E. Berjano, Int Commun Heat Mass Transfer, 46:7-12, 2013.



Laparoscopic Distal Pancreatectomy: Feasibility Study of Radiofrequency-Assisted Transection in a Porcine Model.Dorcaratto D, Burdío F, Fondevila D, Andaluz A, Poves I, Martinez MA, Quesada R, Berjano E, Grande L. J Laparoendosc Adv Surg Tech A. 2012 Apr;22(3):242-8.

Relationship between roll-off occurrence and spatial distribution of dehydrated tissue during RF ablation with cooled electrodes.Trujillo M, Alba J, Berjano E. Int J Hyperthermia. 2012;28(1):62-8.

Mathematical models based on transfer functions to estimate tissue temperature during RF cardiac ablation in real time. Alba-Martínez J, Trujillo M, Blasco-Gimenez R, Berjano E. Open Biomed Eng J. 2012;6:16-22.

Electrical-thermal performance of a cooled RF applicator for hepatic ablation with additional distant infusion of hypertonic saline: in vivo study and preliminary computer modeling. Romero-Méndez R, Tobajas P, Burdío F, Gonzalez A, Navarro A, Grande L, Berjano E. Int J Hyperthermia. 2012;28(7):653-62.

Feasibility study of an internally cooled bipolar applicator for RF coagulation of hepatic tissue: experimental and computational study. González-Suárez A, Trujillo M, Burdío F, Andaluz A, Berjano E. Int J Hyperthermia. 2012;28(7):663-73.

Applicator for RF thermokeratoplasty: feasibility study using theoretical modeling and ex vivo experiments. Trujillo M, Ribera V, Quesada R, Berjano E. Ann Biomed Eng. 2012 May;40(5):1182-91.

Analytical Model Based on a Cylindrical Geometry to Study RF Ablation with Needle-Like Internally Cooled Electrode. López Molina JA, Rivera MJ, Berjano E. Mathematical Problems in Engineering. 2012: Article ID 834807, 16 pages.



Could it be advantageous to tune the temperature controller during radiofrequency ablation? A feasibility study using theoretical models. Alba-Martínez J, Trujillo M, Blasco-Giménez R, Berjano E.Int J Hyperthermia. 2011;27(6):539-48.

Distant Infusion of Saline May Enlarge Coagulation Volume During Radiofrequency Ablation of Liver Tissue Using Cool-tip Electrodes Without Impairing Predictability. Burdío F, Tobajas P, Quesada-Diez R, Berjano E, Navarro A, Poves I, Grande L. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2011 Jun;196(6):W837-43.

Single Instrument for Hemostatic Control in Laparoscopic Partial Nephrectomy in a Porcine Model Without Renal Vascular Clamping. Ríos JS, Zalabardo JM, Burdío F, Berjano E, Moros M, Gonzalez A, Navarro A, Güemes A. J Endourol. 2011 May 19.

Sutureless hepatic transection using a new radiofrequency assisted device. Theoretical model, experimental study and clinic trial. Martínez-Serrano MÁ, Grande L, Burdío F, Berjano E, Poves I, Quesada R. Cir Esp. 2011 Mar;89(3):145-51.



Impedance measurement to assess epicardial fat prior to RF intraoperative cardiac ablation: a feasibility study using a computer model. González-Suárez A, Hornero F, Berjano EJ. Physiol Meas. 2010 Nov;31(11):N95-104.

A new single-instrument technique for parenchyma division and hemostasis in liver resection: a clinical feasibility study. Burdío F, Grande L, Berjano E, Martinez-Serrano M, Poves I, Burdío JM, Navarro A, Güemes A. Am J Surg. 2010 Dec;200(6):e75-80.

Mathematical modeling of epicardial RF ablation of atrial tissue with overlying epicardial fat. Suárez AG, Hornero F, Berjano EJ. Open Biomed Eng J. 2010 Feb 4;4:47-55.

Current trends in mathematical modeling of high-temperature thermal therapies. Haemmerich D, Berjano EJ. Open Biomed Eng J. 2010 Feb 4;4:1-2.

Black-box modeling to estimate tissue temperature during radiofrequency catheter cardiac ablation: Feasibility study on an agar phantom model. Blasco-Gimenez R, Lequerica JL, Herrero M, Hornero F, Berjano EJ. Physiol Meas. 2010 Apr;31(4):581-94.

In vivo assessment of a new method of pulsatile perfusion based on a centrifugal pump. Herreros J, Ubilla M, Berjano EJ, Vila-Nuñez JE, Páramo JA, Sola J, Mercé S. Artif Organs. 2010 Feb;34(2):140-6.



Theoretical modeling of RF ablation with internally cooled electrodes: comparative study of different thermal boundary conditions at the electrode-tissue interface. Rivera MJ, Molina JA, Trujillo M, Berjano EJ. Math Biosci Eng. 2009 Jul;6(3):611-27.

Thermal modeling for pulsed radiofrequency ablation: analytical study based on hyperbolic heat conduction. López Molina JA, Rivera MJ, Trujillo M, Berjano EJ. Med Phys. 2009 Apr;36(4):1112-9.

Esophagus histological analysis after hyperthermia-induced injury: implications for cardiac ablation. Lequerica JL, Sanz E, Hornero F, Herrero M, Ruiz N, Burdio F, Berjano EJ. Int J Hyperthermia. 2009 Mar;25(2):150-9.

Effect of electrode thermal conductivity in cardiac radiofrequency catheter ablation: a computational modeling study. Schutt D, Berjano EJ, Haemmerich D. Int J Hyperthermia. 2009 Mar;25(2):99-107.

Research and development of a new RF-assisted device for bloodless rapid transection of the liver: computational modeling and in vivo experiments. Burdío F, Berjano EJ, Navarro A, Burdío JM, Grande L, Gonzalez A, Cruz I, Güemes A, Sousa R, Subirá J, Castiella T, Poves I, Lequerica JL. Biomed Eng Online. 2009 Mar 18;8:6.

Analytical thermal-optic model for laser heating of biological tissue using the hyperbolic heat transfer equation. Trujillo M, Rivera MJ, López Molina JA, Berjano EJ. Math Med Biol. 2009 Sep;26(3):187-200.



Reliability assessment of a cooled intraesophageal balloon to prevent thermal injury during RF cardiac ablation: an agar phantom study Lequerica JL, Berjano EJ, Herrero M, Hornero F. J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol. 2008 Nov;19(11):1188-93.

Influence of approach on outcome in radiofrequency ablation of liver tumors. Burdío F, Mulier S, Navarro A, Figueras J, Berjano E, Poves I, Grande L. Surg Oncol. 2008 Dec;17(4):295-9.

A new method of providing pulsatile flow in a centrifugal pump: assessment of pulsatility using a mock circulatory system Herreros J, Berjano EJ, Sales-Nebot L, Más P, Calvo I, Mastrobuoni S, Mercé S. Artif Organs. 2008 Jun;32(6):490-4

Laparoscopic blood-saving liver resection using a new radiofrequency-assisted device: preliminary report of an in vivo study with pig liver Navarro A, Burdío F, Berjano EJ, Güemes A, Sousa R, Rufas M, Subirá J, Gonzalez A, Burdío JM, Castiella T, Tejero E, De Gregorio MA, Grande L, Lozano R. Surg Endosc. 2008 May;22(5):1384-91.

Effect of the thermal wave in radiofrequency ablation modeling: an analytical study Molina JA, Rivera MJ, Trujillo M, Berjano EJ. Phys Med Biol. 2008 Mar 7;53(5):1447-62.

A cooled water-irrigated intraesophageal balloon to prevent thermal injury during cardiac ablation: experimental study based on an agar phantom Lequerica JL, Berjano EJ, Herrero M, Melecio L, Hornero F. Phys Med Biol. 2008 Feb 21;53(4):N25-34.

Assessment of hyperbolic heat transfer equation in theoretical modeling for radiofrequency heating techniques López-Molina JA, Rivera MJ, Trujillo M, Burdío F, Lequerica JL, Hornero F, Berjano EJ. Open Biomed Eng J. 2008 Apr 10;2:22-7.

Radiofrequency hepatic ablation with internally cooled electrodes and hybrid applicators with distant saline infusion using an in vivo porcine model Burdío F, Navarro A, Berjano EJ, Burdío JM, Gonzalez A, Güemes A, Sousa R, Rufas M, Cruz I, Castiella T, Lozano R, Lequerica JL, Grande L. Eur J Surg Oncol. 2008 Jul;34(7):822-30.



Small ablation zones created previous to saline infusion result in enlargement of the coagulated area during perfusion RF ablation: an ex vivo experimental study. Navarro AC, Burdío F, Berjano EJ, Güemes A, Burdío JM, Sousa R, Lozano R, Tejero E, de Gregorio MA. Physiol Meas. 2007 Jun;28(6):N29-37.

RF tumor ablation with internally cooled electrodes and saline infusion: what is the optimal location of the saline infusion? Burdío F, Berjano EJ, Navarro A, Burdío JM, Güemes A, Grande L, Sousa R, Subiró J, Gonzalez A, Cruz I, Castiella T, Tejero E, Lozano R, de Gregorio MA. Biomed Eng Online. 2007 Jul 16;6:30.

A radiofrequency-assisted device for bloodless rapid transection of the liver: a comparative study in a pig liver model. Burdío F, Navarro A, Berjano E, Sousa R, Burdío JM, Güemes A, Subiró J, Gonzalez A, Cruz I, Castiella T, Tejero E, Lozano R, Grande L, de Gregorio MA. Eur J Surg Oncol. 2008 May;34(5):599-605.

Esophageal temperature monitoring during radiofrequency catheter ablation: experimental study based on an agar phantom model. Rodríguez I, Lequerica JL, Berjano EJ, Herrero M, Hornero F. Physiol Meas. 2007 May;28(5):453-63.

Radiofrequency heating of the cornea: an engineering review of electrodes and applicators. Berjano EJ, Navarro E, Ribera V, Gorris J, Alió JL. Open Biomed Eng J. 2007 Dec 11;1:71-6.



Improved perfusion system for bipolar radiofrequency ablation of liver: preliminary findings from a computer modeling study. Berjano EJ, Burdío F, Navarro AC, Burdío JM, Güemes A, Aldana O, Ros P, Sousa R, Lozano R, Tejero E, de Gregorio MA. Physiol Meas. 2006 Oct;27(10):N55-66.

Atrial ablation and esophageal injury: comments on an experimental study. Hornero F, Berjano EJ. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2006 Jul;132(1):212-3; author reply 213-4.

Esophageal temperature during radiofrequency-catheter ablation of left atrium: a three-dimensional computer modeling study. Hornero F, Berjano EJ. J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol. 2006 Apr;17(4):405-10.

Theoretical modeling for radiofrequency ablation: state-of-the-art and challenges for the future. Berjano EJ. Biomed Eng Online. 2006 Apr 18;5:24.

Evolving technology in bipolar perfused radiofrequency ablation: assessment of efficacy, predictability and safety in a pig liver model. Burdío F, Navarro A, Sousa R, Burdío JM, Güemes A, Gonzalez A, Cruz I, Castiella T, Lozano R, Berjano E, Figueras J, de Gregorio MA. Eur Radiol. 2006 Aug;16(8):1826-34.



A cooled intraesophageal balloon to prevent thermal injury during endocardial surgical radiofrequency ablation of the left atrium: a finite element study Berjano EJ, Hornero F. Phys Med Biol. 2005 Oct 21;50(20):N269-79.

What affects esophageal injury during radiofrequency ablation of the left atrium? An engineering study based on finite-element analysis Berjano EJ, Hornero F. Physiol Meas. 2005 Oct;26(5):837-48.

Modeling for radio-frequency conductive keratoplasty: implications for the maximum temperature reached in the cornea Berjano EJ, Alió JL, Saiz J. Physiol Meas. 2005 Jun;26(3):157-72.